Location: it is attached to the posterior surface of the broad ligament by a
peritoneal fold in the pelvis.
- Production of gametes (gametogenesis, oogenesis).
- Production of steroids (steroidogenesis) that play the important role in the menstrual
Location: just beneath the tunica
- Oocyte (about 30 mkm in diameter) arrested in its development at the
diplotene stage of meiotic prophase.
- Follicular cells, a single layer of squamous cells those outer
surface is bounded by the basal lamina.
Function: secretion of androgens that are the precursors of estrogens.
SECONDARY (ANTRAL) FOLLICLE AND GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE
- Oocyte (about 125 mkm in diameter) with irregular microvilli. It
undergoes first meiotic division. One daughter cell receives the majority of the cytoplasm
and becomes the secondary oocyte (about 150 mkm in diameter). It begins the
second meiotic division and is arrested at metaphase. The other daughter cell receives a
minimal amount of the cytoplasm and becomes first polar body.
- Granulesa cells that immediately surround the oocyte
and remain with it at ovulation are referred to as the corona radiata. Thickened
mound associated with the oocyte is called the cumulus oophorus.
- A large antrum filled by liquor folliculi, hyaluronic acid-rich fluid.
Theca interna, the inner, highly vascularized layer
of cuboidal steroid-secreting cells with lipid droplets, fibroblasts, and collagen fibers.
Function: secretion of androgens and their conversion to estrogens.
CORPUS LUTEUM (LUTEAL GLAND)
Origin: the granulosa and thecal
cells of collapsed follicle after ovulation undergo reorganization. At first
bleeding from the capillaries of theca interna leads to the formation
of the corpus hemorrhagicum with the central clot. Blood
and lymphatic vessels from the theca
interna rapidly grow into granulosa layer.
- Granulosa lutein cells, very
large, centrally located cells derived from the granulosa cells.
- Theca lutein cells, small peripherally located cells derived from the
cells of the theca interna layer.
- Corpus albicans, a white scar, is the degenerating and involuting
form of corpus luteum with large amounts of intercellular
hyaline after pregnancy or menstruation. It disappears over a period of several
- corpus luteum of menstruation: secretion of progesterone and estrogenes, that stimulate
the growth of endometrium for 14 days.
- corpus luteum of pregnancy: a high level of progesterone blocks the development of the ovarian follicles for 8 weeks.
Origin: most of the follicles on any stage
of their maturation undergo degeneration and disappear.
Stages of degeneration of large follicles:
Origin: theca interna of atretic follicle.
Composition: the strains of luteal cells scattered in the stroma.
Function: secretion of estrogens that influence the growth and development of
the secondary sex organs.
Location: in connective tissue stroma near blood vessels and nerves.
androgen, steroid-secreting cells.